Forgotten diseases

 TorchOfHope

Forgotten and transmissible diseases are a global trend, especially in developing countries when their treatments are not available, which affects the health and lives of developing people in Asia and Africa, especially among the poor who cannot buy their medicines or are not available to them. Millions of people die annually, especially due to preventable and treatable diseases. Communicable diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria kill 14 million people worldwide, of whom 97% are in developing countries; whereas treatments exist, as they have been discovered in western industrialized countries such as the United States of America and Europe. They are expensive drugs and do not match the entry of individuals into these developing countries.
There are millions of people suffering from forgotten diseases whose spread could be limited if the governments of endemic developing countries saved billions of dollars in resistance, treatment and research to provide effective medicines. These countries are unable to provide these funds for drug purchases. Also, the top 20 global pharmaceutical companies have not produced a new drug for these neglected diseases during the past five years, despite their seriousness except for what they spend on AIDS, cancer and heart disease because they are diseases that attack the West as well; there are no signs of developing drugs to treat neglected diseases such as tuberculosis and disease African trypanosomiasis, Chagas and leishmaniasis, in the short term in the coming years. As for malaria drugs, their therapeutic approach has been made using artemisinin derivatives discovered in China in 1970.
The research centers in America and England spent between 1988 and 1999 about 56% of the budget for hot diseases to manufacture drugs and vaccines to fight the disease despite the progress in the field of genetic engineering and molecular biology and to identify the map of parasites that cause these tropical diseases that cause malaria and other diseases, as The pharmaceutical industry considers that research, development and development of drugs is a costly and profitable risk. Developing countries are poor and do not have the ability to buy new drugs in treating these widespread and endemic diseases in their countries; unlike European countries whose diseases are a popular market for the disposal of medicines that treat these diseases, which compensates the major drug companies for the costs of their research and achieves huge profitability for them. On the other hand, we find that developing countries do not spend money on health research, while research centers in the major industrialized countries do not view these diseases as a direct threat to their citizens. That is why she does not spend her money on the development and production of medicines that do not produce a great return for her. Tropical diseases are a prime example of marginal diseases in the global health profile. Out of 1393 medications approved between 1975 and 1999, 1% of them are medicines for hot tropical diseases.

1- The reality of HIV 

/ AIDS in the Middle East and North Africa (Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, Sudan, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Iran): The number of people living with HIV in these countries ranges Between 470 thousand and 730 thousand. While its prevalence rate around the world is about 1.6%. The number of cases registered in 2003 is estimated to be 43 thousand to 67 thousand cases. The number of deaths in 2003 is estimated at 35 thousand to 50 thousand deaths. The deteriorating conditions in southern Sudan, the prevalence of poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and the absence of health systems have helped the disease spread, leading to the displacement of hundreds of thousands. More than three hundred million people suffer from AIDS in sub-Saharan regions. An estimated 12% of the adult population is HIV-positive, which is the highest in the region. Egypt is one of the countries where there is a slow spread of the disease and the virus that causes it. In Jordan, there were 1,000 HIV infections recorded in 2002. In Saudi Arabia, Jeddah is the highest infection rate with 41% of all infections in the Kingdom. In Iraq, the disease has spread due to the import of a blood factor (factor-8) from France, which is given to people with bleeding for blood thinners (hemophilia). In Iran, there were 4237 AIDS cases in 2003, and most of them were among drug addicts. In Africa, about 15 million people are believed to have died as a result of AIDS, and most infections among people were between the ages of 25 and 49, of whom 89.5% were men. The main means of transmission of the disease is sexual contact between heterosexual people, the use of contaminated infusions, contaminated blood transfusions, and the disease also transmits from the affected mother to the fetus, as there are other unspecified means. AIDS has left 13 million children without parents. It is the most deadly disease in Africa. There is no cure for AIDS, but there are drugs to stop its growth, which improves the lives of its patients. But the number of deaths decreased with the introduction of new drugs and tests. Most HIV-infected patients may live longer. Across Europe, AIDS death rates have fallen by 80% since 1997. Early diagnosis of the disease contributes to a better knowledge of timely and best treatment. The drug is only available to a limited number of Africans, due to its high price.

2- Malaria

There are hopes to prevent the transmission of malaria to humans, especially as a child dies every second. Where it kills malaria from 1-2 million people annually, according to estimates by the World Health Organization, which threatens the life of 40% of the world's population; as it infects malaria annually from 300 - 500 million people.
Malaria is endemic in more than 100 countries, 90% of which are located in sub-Saharan Africa. Most cases of death from malaria are found in children because their immune system is not complete, and pregnant women because their immune system is inhibited during pregnancy, especially if the pregnancy was for the first time. Some people have a self-hereditary immunity that fights malaria and prevents the parasite from growing and reproducing in the body.
Malaria is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit the disease-causing plasmodium parasite parasite. Malaria causes high fever, severe headache, tremors (a rash or fibrillation) and joint pain. And in cases that lead to coma and death. Older traditional medicines like Chloroquine and Quinine find resistance against it, because the parasite has immunity to it. Modern treatments are expensive and the poor cannot afford. The law that transmits the infection has also become immune to pesticides.
The life cycle of the parasite passes through several stages of growth in humans and mosquitoes that transmit it from a person who has malaria infection, as it sucks its blood to make a healthy person ill by transmitting its saliva after biting its skin. Saliva contains sporozoites that live in the salivary glands of mosquitoes, and go through the blood to the liver of the affected person, where the spiridiazides in their cells are divided into thousands of merozoites that flow into the bloodstream to attack their red cells and divide, swell, and break them. For this reason, the person feels a fever as a result of the swelling of the swollen cells that secrete toxins and waste into the blood and the resistance of his immune system to its effect. The patient returns to tremor and excess sweat every 48 hours, according to the type of parasite (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium ovale). This is called intermittent fever. The patient becomes infected due to the breakdown of red blood cells in his body, and after each episode he feels exhausted and bellowing. Malaria is treated with drugs that block the parasite's growth cycle in the patient and do not harm the patient. Some drugs interfere with the effectiveness of metabolism of the parasite itself, such as quinine and its hospitals, some of which prevent it from reproducing inside the blood cells. There is Mefloquine, a quinine antagonist, and its effect is still significant, but it is considered a costly drug for developing countries. Researchers at the European Laboratory for Biomolecules are trying to prevent the transmission of malaria to humans after adjusting for the mosquito’s immune system. Malaria is a complex interaction between humans, mosquitoes and the parasite, which is always evolving .. That is why scientists breed genetically modified mosquitoes for release in infected mosquitoes to spread between them their modified genes. To become a mosquito is not adding to the disease . And malaria has been able to control its disease in Asian countries through modern available drugs and therapeutically effective, especially drugs derivative artemisinin

3- Sleeping sickness

On the other hand, we find that Sleeping Sickness, which is caused by a primary parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, is a fatal disease. It has settled in parts of Africa and puts 300 million in danger of spreading it. Its current treatment is melarsoprol, which was discovered in 1949. But it has severe side effects and takes for a long time to the point where most of its patients continue to take, which makes the condition worse. Alternative treatment is very expensive and is still under testing. The disease is caused by tsetse fly bites. > And symptoms of the disease, such as cold and brain infections, and lead to coma. And when the fly bites the skin, it swells and becomes a painful and red knot. It is accompanied by swelling of the lymph nodes throughout the body. The patient feels fever, profuse sweat and headache. And increase his tension, anxiety and insomnia at night. And tends to sleep and sleepy. And treatment with Suramin (Antrypol), Melarsoprol and Pentamidine.

4-Chagas

Chagas' dis ease, caused by a primary parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmits the infection through kissing, blood transfusion, organ transplants, or the placenta. The disease is endemic in Mexico, Central America, and South America to Chile and Argentina. This parasite lives in cracks, walls, ceilings, clay, mud bricks, and bishop roofs. And when the parasite enters the skin, it causes swelling of the place, and fever appears on the affected person, as does encephalitis, inflammation of the heart muscle. There is no vaccine to prevent it, except spraying insecticides in the endemic areas, and treatment with benznidazole or nifurtimox.

5- Calazar disease

There is Kala Azar (Visceral Leishmaniasis), which afflicts half a million people annually. 90% of cases are concentrated in developing countries including Sudan, Brazil, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The disease is 100% fatal without treatment. It causes weight loss, fever, anemia, enlarged kidneys and spleen. It is transmitted by the sand fly to the bite of the skin that carries the parasite of Leishmania. And treatment is expensive for the poor.

6 tuberculosis

It is assumed that the preventive medicine at the Ministry of Health has a sense of expectation to protect the people from communicable diseases that are currently being raised globally on the health map of the World Health Organization, especially tuberculosis. There are now 16 million people in the world with active tuberculosis. Where a person gets infected in the world every second, according to WHO estimates. Every year 2 million of them die from the disease, 90% of them in poor and developing countries including Egypt. These are health indicators that we cannot ignore or drop from our calculations. Because we are not immune to the disease or even veiled until we become infected. The bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis is transmitted by air or from one person to another, and one sick person can be infected with 10-15 people annually. Although one third of the world's population is exposed For infection, however, the treatments that the researchers reached 40 years ago achieved great success in treating the disease, but 77% of people with the disease cannot get or buy treatment. And patients with AIDS are more likely to become infected and die from tuberculosis due to a deficiency in their immune system. In some areas of Africa we find 75% of tuberculosis patients have AIDS. Tuberculosis generally affects the lung and can affect the kidneys, bones, lymph nodes, and brain. Symptoms of Tuberculosis (TB), cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, weight loss, fever, chills, and weakness. The most vulnerable people to children and AIDS patients are weakened by their weak immune system. Half of those who suffer from it and who do not receive treatment die. And the World Health Organization expects that during the next twenty years from the beginning of this century the number of people infected with the disease will become a billion people, or about one sixth of the world's population now. During these years, 35 million people will die of the disease. Generally our immune system, especially in the lymph nodes, the infection has been resisted by disease, but 5-10 of the patients remain sick with it. Laboratory diagnosis is in two separate ways. One of them is Tuberculin skin testing to check for tuberculosis if the result is positive. But this test, which is injected with pure protein material, extracted from TB bacteria, does not give 100% certainty. The test result appears within 48 - 72 hours of skin injection. The second test is done by analyzing the sputum to identify a microbe, with the lungs imaging with the chest X-ray. Currently a modern and fast technique is used to diagnose this disease called a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) through which a small part of the genetic material of bacteria can be taken from a few spit sample. There are several temporary measures to limit the spread of the disease, including ventilation of public and crowded places to disperse bacteria and the light of ultraviolet rays that kill them in limited places, and give faxes to tuberculosis, which has an effect on children and achieve protection for them and not to contract the disease. Antibiotics. But one treatment may generate immunity when I have its germ against it. That is why it gives a combination of treatment given for a period of no less than 6 months and for a period that may reach a year. This combination includes antibiotics isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. The scientists were able to decipher the genetic code of the TB bacteria in 1998, which would enable them to reach a treatment for it and reach New ways to prevent it. Although tuberculosis began to recede globally since 1980, experts expect it not to appear in industrialized countries in 2010, although health estimates indicate that the disease is increasing in the number of cases between 1985 and 1991. And the statistics show an increase of 20% in the United States of America. During this pennant until 2000, more than a third of the world's population was exposed to TB bacteria. What helped the spread of the disease is the increase in HIV infection rates, especially in Africa and Asia, where the spread of this disease has increased. Also, one of the main reasons is the lack of complete treatment of tuberculosis, the irregularity of its patients by taking the medication regularly over a long-term period, especially after feeling partial recovery. This makes them infectious to spread the infection among people. And the falls of the pathogenic bacteria become more resistant to TB drugs. If the patients who stopped treatment nine months ago, they will need longer treatment periods and more cost. And the emergence of new strains of tuberculosis bacteria that are resistant to its medications has become a serious problem, especially there are currently no drugs for treatment of these new strains. This is why the WHO appeals to countries, especially in Africa and Asia, to follow the Observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) program that makes health supervisors follow up on patients They took them regularly during the prescribed period of treatment. This treatment program has been proven to be beneficial in several Asian countries. What made tuberculosis circulate immigration and rapid travel by plane and tourism, and the difficulty of identifying patients with it, which made it cross international borders easily. Displacement, poverty, crowding and malnutrition have a growing influence in spreading the disease, which has become a ticking time bomb in Egypt.

7- Fulari

There is lymphatic filariasis that affects people through parasitic filariasis that lives in the vessels of the lymphatic system in the human body. It circulates with blood in the peripheral areas. It is transmitted by mosquitoes from one person to another. Filariasis affects 120 people in the warm regions of the world, especially beyond the African desert, Egypt and South Asia and the northern coastal areas of South and Central America and the Caribbean and Pacific Islands. The male worm causes the lymph vessels to loosen and swell with the leg, penis, forearm and breast. The patient shows symptoms of fever, sneezing, and coughing as a result of the reaction to the presence of this small worm in the capillaries in the lungs. To prevent infection, the bites of the mosquito vector are avoided, as there is no vaccine against the disease. Patients can be treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). However, many people with lymph swelling do not develop a second filarial parasite and do not undergo filarial treatment. They may resort to surgery.

8- Dengue

Dengue Fever (dengue hemorrhagic fever) (DHF) is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes. And it is widespread in the hot regions of the world. About 2.5 billion people live in areas affected by the disease. Among them 50 - 100 million cases of dengue patients annually. In 2002, it was found that the disease is endemic in the South Pacific, Asia and the Caribbean and the American and African equatorial regions, including the bleeding dengue fever that has become an epidemic there during the past five years. The first sweeping epidemic occurred in Cuba in 1981 and in Brazil between 1989 and 1990. Since then, epidemics of fever dengue have erupted in 28 countries in the US

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